Past Highlights

La guerre en Centrafrique à l’ombre du Tchad. Une escalade conflictuelle régionale ?

24 Apr 2018
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2018/03 – Agence Française de Développement (AFD); Études de l'AFD n° 17; Author(s): Emmanuel Chauvin - Details

Cette étude, réalisée par Emmanuel Chauvin pour l’Observatoire Pharos à la demande de l’Agence Française de Développement (AFD), éclaire la double dimension régionale d’une guerre civile : sa régionalisation militaire et son impact sur l’évolution des flux économiques, politiques et culturels, transfrontaliers entre le théâtre de ce conflit et les pays limitrophes.

The Strong Nation-State and ViolenceTitle

24 Apr 2018
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2018/03 – Institute for Development and Peace (INEF); Working Papers on Development and Global Governance No.16; Author(s): Christian Tischmeyer - Details

This ascription is based on existence of five sets of institutions, or dimensions of state activity. A state is considered strong when perceived to perform effectively in the dimensions of monopolising the military draft, direct taxation, bureaucratic organisation, promotion of formal economy, and keeping internal order. As meeting these conditions depends on direct rule, strong modern states are necessarily nations. Using an actor-centred concept of violence, I assess the violence necessary in creating and maintaining such orders. I conclude that nation-states have an institutional disposition towards massviolence. Thus one has to think beyond this political order when seeking less violence.

Gender and Intersecting Inequalities in Local Government in South Asia

20 Mar 2018
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2018/01 – Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton; research paper; Author(s): Sohela Nazneen - Details

This paper is an evidence review of how intersecting forms of inequalities influence women’s political participation and representation at the local level in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The review shows that while the quota system has increased women’s presence in local government, intersections of gender and caste or gender and class affect minority women’s ability to contest elections, participate in local government meetings, contest opinions, and represent the interests of their community and that of gender equality in different ways. These intersections also make women vulnerable to discriminatory practices within the government and also to violence.

World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for Women 2018 – Global Snapshot

20 Mar 2018
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2018/03 – International Labour Organization (ILO); Report - Details

The past 20 years have witnessed some progress for women in the world of work and in terms of gender equality in society. Today, more women than ever before are both educated and participating in the labour market. This “global snapshot” looks at the progress (or lack thereof) made during the past decade and assesses women’s labour market prospects by examining the gaps between men and women according to a selection of ILO statistical indicators, namely labour force participation, unemployment, informal employment and working poverty.

Myths and Mystifications Around Gendered Poverty: Current Conceptual and Policy Concerns

20 Mar 2018
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2017/12 – Comparative Research Programme on Poverty (CROP), International Social Science Council (ISSC); Poverty Brief no. 39; Author(s): Sarah Bradshaw, Sylvia Chant, Brian Linneker - Details

In this poverty brief Sarah Bradshaw (Middlesex University), Sylvia Chant (London School of Economics and Political Science) and Brian Linneker (Independent Scholar) debate: What do we think we know, what do we actually know, and what do we need to know about women's poverty, and how does this relate to poverty alleviation programmes? The authors conclude that while a feminised and feminising monetary poverty has been assumed, there is little evidence on which to base this assumption. As such more research is needed on these other dimensions of gendered poverty if anti-poverty programmes are to improve women's wellbeing.

Understanding Multiple Trajectories of Extending Social Protection to the Poor: An Analysis of Institutional Change in Kenya

27 Feb 2018
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2017/10 – International Centre for Sustainable Development (IZNE); IZNE Working Paper Series Nr. 17/6; Author(s): Katja Bender, et al. - Details

Political economic analyses of recent social protection reforms in Asian, African or Latin American countries have increased throughout the last few years. Yet, most contributions focus on one social protection mechanism only and do not provide a comparative approach across policy areas. In addition, most studies are empirical studies, with no or very limited theoretical linkages. The paper aims to explain multiple trajectories of social protection reform processes looking at cash transfers and social health protection policies in Kenya. It develops a taxonomy and suggest a conceptual framework to assess and explain reform dynamics across different social protection pillars. In order to allow for a more differentiated typology and enable us to understand different reform dynamics, the article uses the approach on gradual institutional change. While existing approaches to institutional change mostly focus on institutional change prompted by exogenous shocks or environmental shifts, this approach takes account of both, exogenous and endogenous sources of change.

Barriers to Access Social Assistance and Special Social Services in Kazakhstan

27 Feb 2018
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2018/01 – Overseas Development Institute (ODI); research paper; Author(s): Lucy Scott et al. - Details

This study analyses the barriers to accessing social assistance in Kazakhstan, with a focus on vulnerable children, including children with disabilities. We worked with UNICEF Kazakhstan to assess the barriers faced by low-income and vulnerable families with children in accessing poverty-targeted social assistance (Targeted Social Assistance (TSA) and the State Child Allowance (SCA)). The study focuses on children living in households (rather than those residing in institutions), and, with respect to access to special services, on children with disabilities. The study is based on a large household survey and semi-structured interviews in three of the country’s regions. The study offers recommendations to overcome barriers to accessing social assistance and feeds into the social policy reforms scheduled for 2018.

Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

27 Feb 2018
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2017/12 – United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD); Working Paper 2017-12; Author(s): Marianne S. Ulriksen, Sophie Plagerson - Details

This paper explores the contrasting developments within social security policy and focus its analysis on two case studies with varying policy outcomes: 1) the social cash transfer system, which is well established; and 2) the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, a recent policy, which has suffered several delays. Building on the power resource and historical institutionalism approaches, the paper explores how different actors seek to assert their policy preferences, and how current institutional arrangements shape actors’ interests and their ability to influence policy reforms. The two cases reveal interesting differences that can explain the success of social cash transfer expansion and the sluggish progress (to date) to introduce national health insurance.

World Social Protection Report 2017-19: Universal Social Protection to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals

27 Feb 2018
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2017/11 – International Labour Organization (ILO); Flagship Report - Details

This ILO flagship report provides a global overview of recent trends in social protection systems, including social protection floors. Based on new data, it offers a broad range of global, regional and country data on social protection coverage, benefits and public expenditures on social protection.

Tax Games - The Race to the Bottom: Europe's Role in Supporting an Unjust Global Tax System 2017

14 Feb 2018
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2017/12 – Vienna Institute for International Dialogue and Cooperation (VIDC); Report; Editor(s): Stephanie Ross, Vicky Annin - Details

The world’s governments have committed to ambitious Sustainable Development Goals and a new global climate agreement, but the funding necessary to reach these goalsis lacking. This gap is felt most strongly in developing countries, where funding sources are in short supply and the development challenges are most severe. In this context, corporate tax income is an absolutely indispensable source of government revenue.