Research Monitor

Extractive Industries, Revenue Allocation and Local Politics

2014/03 - United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD); Authors: Francisco Javier Arellano-Yanguas and Andrés Mejia Acosta

The success of a developmental strategy based on the extraction of non-renewable resources is largely dependent on the share of revenues captured by the state from the extractive sector and the modalities that governments adopt to use and distribute those revenues. In the last two decades, local populations and subnational governments have demanded a greater decentralisation of extractive industry (EI) related revenues but the modalities and mechanisms adopted varied widely across cases.

This paper looks at the existing criteria and reform modalities adopted to allocate and use EI revenues, and examines the political bargains that enabled such distribution. The paper focuses on four specific questions: a) How do central governments share (or distribute) the revenues from extractive industries with different levels of subnational government?; b) How do governments distribute EI revenues across extractive and nonextractive jurisdictions at subnational level?; c) Which are the mechanisms and rules adopted by governments to allocate these resources?; and d) What is the bargaining potential of subnational territories to demand a more proportionate share of revenues?

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World’s Agricultural Production and Trade: Food Security at Stake?



2014/01 - Institute for World Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies- Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), Author: Miklós Somai 

The extraordinary events of the last couple of years, like the surge and the topsy-turvy movement in oil, raw material and food prices, or the development of a so far unprecedented global financial and economic crisis, have been heavily testing the endurance of those earning their living from agriculture and related activities. All these troubles have not been beneficial to the ongoing trade liberalization process within the framework of WTO. 

In this paper, the authors describe the recent development of world’s agricultural production and trade; offer an insight into the evaluation problems of worldwide food insecurity; and briefly compare the upcoming agricultural policy reforms in Europe and the US. 

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The Future of Human Rights Protection in the New Libya: Prospects and Challenges



2014/02 - Institute for European Studies, University of Malta; Author: Nasser Algheitta

 

There is no doubt that demand for the respect of human rights was one of the factors behind the Arab Spring and Libya is no exception. Four decades of absolute dictatorship headed by Muammar Gaddafi had been further tainted with gross violations of human rights of Libyan citizens and restrictions on their basic freedoms.

 

The paper examines the country’s effort to protect the rights of its citizens and what are the challenges facing such an effort. It starts with a historical account of the political structure of the country since independence and its impact on the situation of human rights.

 

 

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